The Whitecaps said Monday that the Major League Soccer club and the Scottish international mutually agreed to terminate the contract.
"We are thankful for the contributions Barry made during his time with the club. Unfortunately Barry and his family never fully settled in Vancouver, and we've mutually decided to move in different directions," Whitecaps president Bob Lenarduzzi said in a statement. "On behalf of the club, I wish Barry the very best in the next stage of his career."
Robson, 34, joined the Whitecaps last June after 2 1/2 seasons with English side Middlesbrough. The native of Inverurie, Scotland, scored three goals in 18 appearances for Vancouver.
"Thank you to my teammates, coaches, staff, fans, and media for making my experience in Vancouver enjoyable," Robson said. "I am now looking forward to returning home and beginning the next chapter in my career."