The six-foot-three 245-pound Messam was named the league's top Canadian in 2011 when he became the first non-import to rush to more than 1,000 yards since Sean Millington in 2000. He had 1,057 yards and six touchdowns on 195 carries that season.
The Brampton, Ont., native missed half of last season in a failed bid to crack the Miami Dolphins lineup, rejoining Edmonton in late August. He had 168 yards rushing and one TD over the last nine games of the season.
He began his CFL career in 2010 with the B.C. Lions and was traded to the Eskimos for a fifth round pick.
"We look forward to helping Jerome regain his form from his (Outstanding Canadian) season in 2011," Alouettes general manager Jim Popp said in a statement. "Jerome should add another dimension to our ever-changing offence.
"It will be fun to watch our new offensive coaches implement these newly-acquired offensive players with our current group of outstanding players."
The Alouettes are expected to name a new head coach soon to replace Marc Trestman, who was hired by the Chicago Bears.
The team had a run of injuries to running backs last season and it is uncertain if the 2012 starter Brandon Whitaker will be back.
The Alouettes have granted nine-year veteran defensive lineman Luc Mullinder his release.
It was a busy day for the Eskimos, who also made a five-player trade with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats.
Edmonton acquired two Canadians, linebacker Nathan Kanya and the rights to offensive lineman Carson Rockhill in exchange for offensive lineman Greg Wojt, linebacker Simoni Lawrence and quarterback Jeremiah Masoli.