The International Ice Hockey Federation says its disciplinary committee barred Mikhalyov from "national-domestic league play in any league which is affiliated with the IIHF."
Mikhalyov, who last played for Dynamo Minsk in the Russia-based KHL, can appeal the suspension, which runs through March 6, 2015.
The 35-year-old forward tested positive for methylhexaneamine on Feb. 8 at an Olympic qualification tournament in Denmark.
Belarus was eliminated and won't play at the 2014 Sochi Games in February.
Mikhalyov played for his country at the 2010 Vancouver Olympics.