The club made the announcement Friday night and comes days after Winnipeg re-signed Wheeler's linemate Bryan Little to a new five-year contract worth $23.5 million.
Wheeler, like Little, avoided arbitration by signing the deal.
Wheeler is coming off a lockout-shortened season where he had a team-leading 19 goals to go with 22 assists in 48 games.
"Thrilled to be a Jet for 6 more years," Wheeler posted on Twitter.
The Robbinsdale, Minn., native has played in 372 career NHL games between Boston, Atlanta and Winnipeg for 232 career points (93 goals, 139 assists).
He was originally drafted by the Phoenix Coyotes in the first round, fifth overall, in the 2004 NHL Draft.