As Congress reopened the U.S. government Thursday and signed off on more borrowing so America could pay its bills, the president warned that the deal reached at the last minute on Wednesday had quelled but not ended the deep political and fiscal crisis. The administration and its Republican opponents know the deal only pushed the unsolved and bitter ideological battle a few months into the future. Obama warned against repeating the same damaging cycle again.
"The American people are completely fed up with Washington," Obama said in a forceful tone.
"Probably nothing has done more damage to America's credibility in the world than the spectacle we've seen these past few weeks," the president said in an impassioned White House appearance.
And Obama chastised opponents who had forced the 16-day partial government shutdown and threatened the United States with default to remember that "disagreement cannot mean dysfunction."
Hundreds of thousands of federal staff began returning to work Thursday after the legislation passed both houses of Congress late Wednesday and was signed into law by Obama just after midnight. The deal was welcomed around the world, but anxiety persisted about America's long-term stability. The fiscal feud could resume as new deadlines in January and February near, though some political experts suggested Republicans might not be so eager for another fight after seeing the party's approval plummet to record lows.
The impasse, fought over government spending in general and Obama's new health care program in particular, had shuttered national parks and monuments, and mostly closed down agencies such as NASA and the Environmental Protection Agency. Critical functions of government went on as usual, but the closure and potential default weighed on the economy and spooked the financial markets. Standard & Poor's estimated the shutdown has taken $24 billion out of the economy.
Republican House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner said: "We fought the good fight. We just didn't win."
As the deal came together earlier Wednesday, the stock market surged on the prospect of an end to the crisis that had threatened to shake confidence in the U.S. economy both at home and abroad.
IMF managing director Christine Lagarde welcomed the deal but said the shaky American economy needs more stable long-term finances.
"It will be essential to reduce uncertainty surrounding the conduct of fiscal policy by raising the debt limit in a more durable manner," Lagarde said in a statement.
The Republican-controlled House of Representatives voted 285-144 in favour of the bill, even though most Republicans voted against it. In the Democrat-controlled Senate, approval was even more lopsided, 81-18.
House Republicans sparked the crisis on Oct. 1 when they refused to fund the government unless Obama agreed to defund or delay his health care law, known as "Obamacare." The government shutdown was soon overshadowed when House Republicans also refused to up the government's borrowing authority so the U.S. could pay its bills, raising the spectre of a catastrophic default. Obama refused to budge, proclaiming repeatedly that he would not to pay a "ransom" in order to get Congress to pass normally routine legislation.
Conservative Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas championed the Republican strategy of using both deadlines as weapons that could be used to gut Obama's Affordable Care Act, which launched its online exchanges for millions of uninsured Americans on Oct 1. The Democrats fended off every challenge to Obamacare, while Republicans in the House failed to collect enough votes to pass their own plan to end the bitter standoff.
Boehner, in a bold move, ended up putting the compromise bill to a vote in the House knowing most Republicans didn't support it. Undaunted, he vowed Republicans were not giving up on the fight to bring down U.S. debt and cripple Obamacare.
The agreement gives the parties some time to cool off and negotiate a broader spending plan. The government will remain open through Jan. 15 and the deadline for default on debts is now Feb. 7.
"There was no economic rationale for any of this," Vice-President Joe Biden said as he greeted workers returning to the Environmental Protection Agency with hugs, handshakes and muffins. "I hope everybody walks away with a lesson that this is unnecessary and I hope we can regain the trust of the American people."
The agreement doesn't resolve partisan disputes over Washington's budget but funds the government temporarily while lawmakers try to work out a broader deal to cut deficits and ease across-the-board spending cuts. That leaves the possibility of another stalemate in coming weeks.
"I hope this is the end of this," Biden told reporters. But he acknowledged, "There's no guarantee of anything."
Some members of Congress were already bracing for another battle.
"All this does is delay this fight four months," Republican Congressman Mo Brooks said. "We need to get to the underlying cause of the problem, which is our out-of-control spending and deficits, and fix it before it's too late and we go down the toilet to bankruptcy because that's where America is headed."
Several polls showed a steep decline in public approval for Republicans. Republican Sen. John McCain said the American people clearly disapprove of how Republicans, and also Democrats and the president, handled the budget gridlock.
"Hopefully, the lesson is to stop this foolish childishness," McCain said Thursday on CNN.
After Obama signed the bill, Sylvia Mathews Burwell, director of the Office of Management and Budget, issued a memorandum ordering department heads to "open offices in a prompt and orderly manner." They will be paid for the time they were forced off the job.
Washington's Smithsonian Institution declared on Twitter that it was back in business, announcing that its 19 museums would reopen Thursday. The National Zoo was set to reopen Friday.
Associated Press writers David Espo, Alan Fram, Andrew Taylor, Charles Babington, Stephen Ohlemacher, Henry C. Jackson and Donna Cassata contributed to this report.