Ribery, who won UEFA's best player in Europe award for the 2012-13 season, helped Bayern Munich win the Champions League and Bundesliga and German Cup titles.
Messi, winner of the last four Ballon d'Or awards in voting by coaches, team captains and media, was injured late in the season and could not prevent Barcelona from being beaten by Bayern in the Champions League semifinals.
Neymar joined Messi at Barcelona this season after a move from Santos in his native Brazil, while Welshman Bale moved to Real Madrid from Tottenham in September for 100 million euros, the richest transfer in football history.
Another nominee was Liverpool forward Luis Suarez, who missed the start of the 2013-14 Premier League season while serving a 10-game suspension for biting Chelsea defender Branislav Ivanovic during a Premier League game in April.
The Ballon d'Or, or world player of the year, winner will be announced Jan. 13 in Zurich.
Two now-retired managers — Alex Ferguson of Manchester United and Bayern's Jupp Heynckes — are among 10 nominees for FIFA's coach of the year award.
Ballon d'Or nominees (alphabetical order, nationalities): Gareth Bale (Wales), Edinson Cavani (Uruguay), Radamel Falcao (Colombia), Eden Hazard (Belgium), Zlatan Ibrahimovic (Sweden), Andres Iniesta (Spain), Philipp Lahm (Germany), Robert Lewandowski (Poland), Lionel Messi (Argentina), Thomas Mueller (Germany), Manuel Neuer (Germany), Neymar (Brazil), Mesut Ozil (Germany), Andrea Pirlo (Italy), Franck Ribery (France), Arjen Robben (Netherlands), Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal), Bastian Schweinsteiger (Germany), Luis Suarez (Uruguay), Thiago Silva (Brazil), Yaya Toure (Ivory Coast), Robin Van Persie (Netherlands), Xavi (Spain).
Coach of the year nominees (nationalities, teams): Carlo Ancelotti (Italy, Paris Saint-Germain/Real Madrid), Rafael Benitez (Spain, Chelsea/Napoli), Antonio Conte (Italy, Juventus), Vicente Del Bosque (Spain, Spain national team), Alex Ferguson (Scotland, Manchester United, retired), Jupp Heynckes (Germany, Bayern Munich, retired), Juergen Klopp (Germany, Borussia Dortmund), Jose Mourinho (Portugal, Real Madrid/Chelsea), Luiz Felipe Scolari (Brazil, Brazil national team), Arsene Wenger (France, Arsenal).