Callahan scored his sixth goal of the season for New York, which has won eight of its past 11 games.
Talbot, who replaced Martin Biron as the backup goalie, became the first Rangers goalie to earn a shutout in Montreal since Ed Giacomin in a 5-0 win on Feb. 25, 1967.
The Rangers outshot Montreal 34-22.
The Canadiens were coming off a 3-2 shootout win in Columbus on Friday night and spent most of the game a step behind the Rangers, who played the first of back-to-back games before playing Los Angeles at home on Sunday.
Callahan broke the Rangers' Bell Centre drought just as a two-man advantage ended as he tipped Brad Richard's blast from the left circle past Carey Price 5:25 into the second period.
DEVILS 4, PENGUINS 1
NEWARK, N.J. (AP) — Jaromir Jagr scored two goals and Martin Brodeur made 27 saves to lead New Jersey over Pittsburgh.
Andy Greene and Adam Larsson also scored for New Jersey, which has won three of its past five.
Chris Kunitz scored for Pittsburgh. The Penguins have lost four of six. Marc-Andre Fleury stopped 18 of 21 shots.
BLUES 4, HURRICANES 2
ST. LOUIS (AP) — Alexander Steen scored his league-leading 17th goal and also added an assist to lead St. Louis Blues over Carolina.
Steen extended his scoring streak to 13 games, the longest for a Blue since Pierre Turgeon had a 15-game streak in 1999-2000.
The Blues won for the fifth time in six games despite giving up two short-handed goals on the same power play for the first time in more than 20 years. St. Louis last allowed that to happen on Oct. 8, 1992 against the then-Minnesota North Stars.
Roman Polak had a goal and assist for St. Louis. David Backes and T.J. Oshie also scored for the Blues and Brian Elliott made 18 saves.
Eric Staal and Nathan Gerbe scored for Carolina.
PREDATORS 7, BLACKHAWKS 2
NASHVILLE, Tenn. (AP) — Rookie Marek Mazanec made 39 saves for his first NHL victory and Nashville stopped Chicago's four-game winning streak.
Craig Smith scored a goal and added two assists for the Predators. The three-point game equaled the Madison, Wis. native's career high.
Matt Cullen, Nick Spaling, Patric Hornqvist, Viktor Stalberg, Mike Fisher and Shea Weber also scored for Nashville, which ended a four-game losing streak.
Patrick Kane and Brandon Pirri had the goals for Chicago.
PANTHERS 4, AVALANCHE 1
DENVER (AP) — Tim Thomas made 32 saves for his 200th NHL victory and Brian Campbell had a goal and an assist in Florida's win over Colorado.
Brad Boyes, Tomas Kopecky and Jonathan Huberdeau also scored, and Tom Gilbert had three assists for the Panthers.
Ryan O'Reilly scored Colorado, which has lost three straight.
The Avalanche have cooled off after setting a franchise record for the hottest start through 16 games. They dropped road games in Carolina and St. Louis and came home looking to turn things around against lowly Florida.
Instead, the Panthers, who played Friday, looked like the fresher team throughout.
ISLANDERS 5, RED WINGS 4, SO
UNIONDALE, N.Y. (AP) — Kevin Poulin stopped all three Detroit skaters in the shootout after coming on in relief, and New York outlasted the reeling Red Wings.
Neither team could hold the lead until Poulin shut the door in the tiebreaker, denying Henrik Zetterberg, Pavel Datsyuk and Todd Bertuzzi. The Red Wings had tied the game 4-4 when Datsyuk scored his second of the night with 42.5 seconds left in regulation.
The Red Wings also got goals from Darren Helm and Johan Franzen and have lost six straight games and five in a row after regulation — the past three in shootouts.
Frans Nielsen scored the only shootout goal for the Islanders, who had dropped five of six.
Cal Clutterbuck had given the Islanders a 4-3 lead when he tipped Aaron Ness' shot from the left point past Gustavsson 4:43 into the third for his fifth goal. New York also got goals from John Tavares, Casey Cizikas and Brock Nelson.
OILERS 4, FLAMES 2
CALGARY, Alberta (AP) — David Perron scored the go-ahead goal midway through the third period and Edmonton rallied from a two-goal third-period deficit to defeat Calgary.
Perron had the puck behind the Flames net and banked it off the back of goaltender Reto Berra at 10:23. The goal came just over two minutes after another odd goal for the Oilers tied it.
Sam Gagner's shot deflected off Flames defenceman Dennis Wideman and Ales Hemsky batted in out of midair for his first goal in 12 games.
Edmonton started its comeback at 3:41 when Jordan Eberle took a drop pass from Taylor Hall and ripped a shot over the blocker of Berra.
The three-goal barrage in a span of 6:42 came on four shots.
Boyd Gordon added an empty-net goal in the final minute.
Sean Monahan and Wideman scored for the Flames, who are winless in their past six and 0-4-1 in their past five games at home.
MAPLE LEAFS 4, SABRES 2
TORONTO (AP) — James van Riemsdyk scored twice, Nikolai Kulemin got the winner and Toronto snapped a three-game skid by beating Buffalo.
Van Riemsdyk had been pointless in his previous five games, four of those at centre.
Kulemin made it 3-0 at 11:49 of the second period on just his third shot on goal of the season. Mason Raymond also scored for the Leafs.
James Reimer made 33 saves to move to 5-2-0 on the season. Jonas Enroth made 18 saves for Buffalo.
Jamie McBain and Tyler Ennis scored for the Sabres.
COYOTES 6, LIGHTNING 3
GLENDALE, Ariz. (AP) — Martin Hanzal had a goal and three assists, Lauri Korpikoski added a goal and two assists and Phoenix handed Eastern Conference-leading Tampa Bay its first loss in eight games against Western Conference teams this season.
Michael Stone, Mike Ribeiro, Connor Murphy and Shane Doan also scored for Phoenix. Radim Vrbata had three assists.
Richard Panik, J.T. Brown and Alex Killorn scored for the Lightning.