The U.S. pair's time of 1 minute, 49.22 seconds was 0.16 seconds ahead of Switzerland's Beat Hefti and Alex Baumann, and 0.20 seconds better than Canada's Chris Spring and Jesse Lumsden.
"It's pretty cool to have a track record on an established track, and it's actually my first track record in two-man," Holcomb said.
A track record of 54.51 seconds in the opening run was only good enough to have Holcomb and Langton 0.02 seconds ahead of Spring and Lumsden.
But the Canadians faltered on home ice in their second run, and the U.S. pair made it down without any major mistakes to wrap up the win.
"We could have pushed even faster, but I'm getting old and not recovering as quickly from travelling as I used to," Holcomb said. "I made a few mistakes that added up and there's still some room to go even faster."
For Spring, who was born in Australia and became a Canadian citizen earlier this year, the result was significant nonetheless. It was his first World Cup medal with Lumsden.
"We are satisfied, but we wanted more tonight," Spring said. "It is a World Cup podium and you have to be happy with that especially when it is at home."
Longtime German stars Andre Lange and Kevin Kuske had held the Calgary two-man record since November 2005.
The four-man event in Calgary is Saturday morning, and the women's bobsled season opener is Saturday afternoon.