The Shubenacadie Band Council says Maloney died Tuesday at a hospital in Truro.
Maloney served as chief or a councillor with the band council for nearly 30 years at different times between 1966 and 2012.
He served as chief of the Mi'kmaq band in the 1970s, '80s and consecutively from 1990 to 2004.
Maloney became a prominent native leader during his time in office as he fought in the courts for recognition of the band's aboriginal and treaty rights.
In a statement issued by the band, councillor Alex McDonald said Maloney was a leader who stood up for Mi'kmaq rights.
"He made history for our people in many ways,” he said. "Chief Reg will always be remembered as a warrior chief."