"Sad to say I'm missing the Masters," he tweeted. "Thanks to the fans for so many kind wishes."
Woods revealed that he underwent surgery on a pinched nerve that had been nagging him for several months.
The successful microdiscectomy was performed Monday in Park City, Utah, by neurosurgeon Dr. Charles Rich.
Woods further noted he will require rest and rehabilitation and not return to the PGA Tour until later this summer.
"After attempting to get ready for the Masters and failing to make the necessary progress, I decided, in consultation with my doctors, to have this procedure done," he said. "I'd like to express my disappointment to the Augusta National membership, staff, volunteers and patrons that I will not be at the Masters.
"It's a week that's very special to me. It also looks like I'll be forced to miss several upcoming tournaments to focus on my rehabilitation and getting healthy."
Woods, the world's No. 1 player, was forced to withdraw from the Honda Classic as he played the final round, then skipped the Arnold Palmer Invitational, in which he was the defending champion.
Woods was uncertain whether or not chronic discomfort in his back would prevent him from competing in the Masters, the first major of the season and a tournament he has won four times.
"This is frustrating," he said. "But it's something my doctors advised me to do for my immediate and long-term health."
"It's tough right now," Woods continued. But I'm absolutely optimistic about the future
"There are a couple [of] records by two outstanding individuals and players that I hope one day to break. As I've said many times, Sam [Snead] and Jack [Nicklaus] reached their milestones over an entire career.
"I plan to have a lot of years left in mine."