Conservation officer Peter Pauwels says the cougar's aggressive and predatory behaviour forced them to kill it, after tracking dogs were used to locate the animal.
"Absolutely no choice in this one, no choice whatsoever. With this cougar hanging around the trail, it really doesn't get any more dangerous than that for potentially what could have happened," said Pauwels.
But conservation officers believe there is a second cougar still in the area, after a pair was spotted earlier on a motion-sensing camera.
The Galloping Goose Trail is a former railway track that has been converted to a regional walking and biking trail for the Victoria area.
Google Maps: Galloping Goose Trail, Langford, B.C.