The arrests, made on Wednesday, came after a 15-month investigation by more than 200 police officers in Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia.
As part of the operation dubbed Project Distress, officers also raided six residences in Manitoba, including five in Winnipeg.
Some of the items seized include six kilograms of cocaine, eight kilograms of methamphetamine and smaller quantities of other drugs.
Officers also seized 17 long-barrelled guns, three handguns, ammunition and $70,000.
Ten of the individuals charged were from Winnipeg, including Ray Ulasy, a city council candidate in the Transcona ward in the last civic election, who now faces two charges of firearms trafficking.
RCMP officials say the investigation targeted organized crime and drug trafficking and used wiretaps to record more than 80,000 conversations and communications.