The documents, obtained by the Journal de Montreal, show Justice Suzanne Côté tried to claim about $50,000 a year in clothing expenses over three years, from 2004 to 2006.
She also claimed more than $25,000 during that time in "personal care" and other expenses.
According to the newspaper, the documents reveal that Côté made claims for tax deductions totalling $204,685 that were rejected by the Quebec tax agency.
Côté, a top corporate litigator in Quebec, went to court to defend the claims against the Quebec revenue agency in 2009. Her case was settled out of court in 2012. The details of that settlement have not been made public.
A spokesman for the Prime Minister's Office, Carl Vallée, told the Toronto Star that "the matters between Justice Côté and Revenu Québec were resolved years ago."
Côté was named to the top bench last month, after the high court rejected the government's first choice, Marc Nadon, because he didn't meet the criteria to represent Quebec.
That rejection came after controversy last summer, when the government accused Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin of trying to interfere with the decision to appoint Nadon.
McLachlin said she was merely trying to warn the government that Nadon might not meet the criteria for appointment.