The 26-year-old St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Que., native was scheduled to become a free agent next month. Calgary acquired Charbonneau-Campeau from Hamilton Tiger-Cats on Jan. 6, 2014.
He appeared in 14 regular-season games for Calgary and established career highs with 13 catches for 233 yards and scored his first career touchdown Sept. 6 against Edmonton. Charbonneau-Campeau added two receptions for 74 yards in the West final and had a catch for 28 yards in the Stampeders' 20-16 Grey Cup win over Hamilton.
The former Sherbrooke star also had seven special-teams tackles with Calgary.
"I'm pleased that Simon has chosen to remain with the Stampeders," Calgary head coach/GM John Hufnagel said in a statement. "He was an excellent addition to the team in 2014 as he made some very important catches and was a great asset on special teams.
"I look forward to his continued development in his second season with us."
Charbonneau-Campeau played two seasons in Hamilton and in 41 career CFL games has 22 catches for 348 yards and one touchdown.