Conservative MP John Williamson's private member's bill would apply to any future occasions where an MP or senator is convicted of certain crimes.
The money contributed to the pension by the government would be revoked, but the parliamentarians would keep any money they put in and any interest earned on those contributions.
The legislation is a pointed response to the Senate expenses scandal, which so far has left three suspended senators facing charges.
MPs from all parties in the Commons supported the bill by a vote of 257-13.
Because of the multi-party support, the Senate is likely to face even more pressure to pass the legislation without delay.