Authorities say supporters of traditional clubs Vasco da Gama and Fluminense were taken into custody after fighting outside the Engenhao stadium.
Rio police intervened with stun bombs and rubber bullets as the rival fan groups from both clubs confronted each other with rocks and metal bars.
No serious injuries were reported.
Brazil has endured a wave of fan violence less than a month into the new season, with several incidents reported across the country. In the most serious case, a 16-year-old boy died after a confrontation between fan groups.
Vasco da Gama won the match 1-0.