Kingston Police said a man wearing a disguise and carrying a rifle walked into a convenience store (at 106 Sutherland Drive) on October 23, 1998, and demanded money, cigarettes and lottery tickets.
Police said the suspect fled the scene but items of clothing possibly related to the crime were found a short distance away. They said they received no tips from the public and no persons of interest were ever identified.
Officers submitted the evidence to the Centre of Forensic Sciences for analysis and comparison to their existing databanks earlier this year.
They say a link was made on Monday that connected the suspect to a Belleville Police investigation.
Police then charged a 51-year-old Kingston man with robbery on Wednesday. His name was not released but he was released on a promise to appear for a future court date.