The accident happened yesterday evening near the marina in St-Mathias-sur-Richelieu.
A 19-year-old woman, who was also in the canoe, was rescued after residents heard her cries from the water at around 7:35 p.m.
She was taken to hospital and treated for hypothermia.
Chambly firefighters searched the water until 1:30 a.m. and will resume their search for the man this morning.
Last night they retrieved a blue life jacket, a canoe and a paddle from the water.