The premiers released a report by their Aboriginal Children in Care Working Group at the Council of the Federation meeting in St. John's, N.L.
It says indigenous kids are over-represented in child welfare systems across Canada.
It calls for more social and economic supports that might improve life for the most at-risk children.
They include poverty reduction strategies, food security measures, better housing and improved mental health and addiction programs.
The report says the premiers invited the federal government to be part of the study but it did not respond.
The federal government defended its record in a statement, saying it introduced changes in 2006 to the way child and family services are delivered on reserves that is based on prevention.
It says spending on child and family services on reserves increased by 40 per cent from 2006 to the 2013-14 fiscal year.