The historian and former university lecturer will replace Pierre Duchesne, who has held the post since 2007.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper made the announcement in a statement Tuesday.
Doyon is also an ex-member of the board of directors of Radio-Canada, the CBC's French-language service.
Lieutenant-governors are appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the prime minister.
They serve as the official representatives of the Queen in their respective jurisdictions.