Singer Selena Gomez continues to raise awareness about lupus since she publicly revealed her diagnosis in 2015. Recently, she announced on Instagram that she had a kidney transplant due to the disease.
What is lupus? We spoke with a Sunnybrook expert about the disease, which disproportionately affects women in their 20s and 30s.
"Women are nine times more likely to get lupus than men, and especially women in their younger years," says Dr. Shirley Chow, a rheumatologist with Sunnybrook's Holland Musculoskeletal Program.
Lupus is an autoimmune condition that can cause swelling of joints and inflammation of tissues and in organs. Normally, the body's immune system forms antibodies to fight infections or cells it recognizes to be separate or external. With lupus, the immune system no longer differentiates and begins to attack itself.
"We think that estrogen, in younger women, may play a role in increased risk for overactive or altered immune response," says Dr. Chow.
Condition has 'a thousand faces'
Lupus affects each individual differently. "It is the disease with a thousand faces," says Dr. Chow, who adds that affected areas include the skin, joints, hair, heart, kidneys, lungs, blood, joints, brain and heart.
First diagnosis can be tricky
Systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE is the most common and serious type. Initial diagnosis can be difficult as lupus is systemic or affects the entire body, says Dr. Chow, is very individualized, and symptoms range from flu-like symptoms such as fatigue, fever, joint pain and severe headache, to a red rash across the cheeks and nose, sensitivity to sunlight, hair loss, hives, fingers and toes changing colour in the cold, and a mild or severe decrease in kidney function. Because symptoms can be wide ranging, Dr. Chow recommends individuals at risk for lupus should check in with their doctor.
A special blood test called antinuclear antibody (ANA) test can help determine if there is autoimmune activity, but does not provide a definitive diagnosis. And a positive ANA test does not make the diagnosis of lupus, as this result can be seen in up to 20 per cent of the normal population. Other clinical features should be present, and more specific antibody tests, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies, may be present. That's where rheumatologists are the trained experts to help diagnose this disorder.
"Major hormonal shifts such as pregnancy require special attention. Though most moms with lupus have healthy babies, some may have high-risk pregnancies and should consult their family doctor or obstetrician," says Dr. Chow.
Living with lupus
Most individuals with this lifelong condition can choose to be as active as they want to be. The key, Dr. Chow says, is to prevent or manage flare-ups that can happen from time to time, where symptoms become intense. She says a healthy diet, getting regular exercise and adequate sleep, not smoking, wearing sunscreen, getting immunized regularly and lowering your stress levels – these all have benefits to help individuals manage their unique condition. In severe flare-ups, short-term-use medications can help to relieve symptoms.
If lupus is left untreated, resulting inflammation in an affected area or organ can lead to tissue damage or possible loss of function. It is important to work with your health-care provider to find the best treatment for each individual.
October is Lupus Awareness Month. Learn more about lupus research and living with lupus at LupusCanada.org
Get more healthy living tips from Sunnybrook experts at health.sunnybrook.ca
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