Editor's note: The following piece was published in the CJFE’s 2013 Review of Free Expression in Canada.
AS AN OTTAWA-BASED journalist, I see a lot of protests on Parliament Hill. But none like the one in July 2012.
Oh, it had the usual trappings of a protest—placards and passionate speeches, even some theatrics with the entrance of a coffin draped in black, accompanied by a scythe-wielding Grim Reaper.
But what was extraordinary about that demonstration was that the estimated 2,000 protesters were scientists. That’s right, scientists—from government and academia—dressed in white lab coats and assembled in mock mourning for the “death of evidence” under the Harper government.
It takes a lot to make scientists—a group used to being unappreciated—angry in public. Two things have fuelled their indignation: severe and targeted cutbacks on government research programs and new rules limiting the ability of government scientists to talk to journalists.
On the first front, government scientists have witnessed a long and growing list of cuts to evidence-gathering programs by the Harper administration:
- Omnibus budget bills impose cuts and layoffs that affect the monitoring of waterways, fisheries and natural resource projects.
- The government instructs Statistics Canada to terminate its mandatory long-form census.
- The Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) stops funding the Experimental Lakes Area, the only facility of its kind in the world, credited with making groundbreaking discoveries about phosphates and acid rain.
- After producing more than 100 million worth of groundbreaking climate change research, the Harper government ends support for the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. Casualties include the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) and the Polar Environment Climate Stability Network (PECSN), both critical to studying climate change in the Arctic.
- Ottawa cuts all funding for the First Nations Statistical Institute (FNSI), which gathers information on Aboriginal peoples, who are usually less represented in government data.
- Cutbacks to Canada’s ozone monitoring network limit the world’s ability to monitor air quality and ozone depletion.
- The government shuts down sources of scientific policy advice such as the National Science Advisor (the first and last person in the position was Dr. Arthur Carty, known for his strong stance on “open access” to scientific information) and the National Round Table on Environment and Economy (accused by Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird of pushing for a carbon tax).
There’s an obvious pattern here: the Harper government appears intent on suppressing certain kinds of science: science that could undermine its policies about climate change, the oil sands, ozone depletion, mining and pipeline projects, and other sensitive issues. We are witnessing the erosion of the principle that evidence should be the foundation of political discourse, sound policy and government regulation. Or, as the protesting scientists have put it, Ottawa is becoming “an evidence-free zone” with a governing party dedicated to “decision-based evidence making.”
The protestors’ second grievance was the degree to which they have been muzzled by a government obsessed with message control. Beginning in 2007, the Harper administration brought in new communications guidelines. Scientists were required to submit media interview requests to the Privy Council in Ottawa and then wait, sometimes for weeks, before being told they would not be given approval to speak.
As stories about the restrictions grew, Environment Minister Peter Kent was adamant. “We are not muzzling scientists,” he insisted. The problem resided with “a small number of journalists ... who believe that the universe rotates around them and their deadlines.”
However, documents released in late 2012 under Access to Information revealed the heavy hand of Kent’s office and that of the Privy Council. Both directly intervened to prevent Environment Canada scientist David Tarasick from talking to the media about his discovery of an unprecedented ozone hole over the Canadian Arctic. It had nothing to do with the impatience of self-centred reporters. Tarasick was eventually allowed to speak, but only several weeks after the news had broken, and then with a government “minder” listening in. The damage had been done—for journalists, news delayed is news denied.
This year, Ottawa has added a few new measures for muzzling government scientists—measures that directly handcuff scientific research. In January 2013, the DFO sent an email for the Central and Arctic Science Sector instructing scientists that they must await departmental approval to submit research to scientific journals. Even if a manuscript has been accepted by a journal, the DFO has eleventh-hour powers to pull the paper if it doesn’t want the data to go public.
The DFO has also proposed confidentiality provisions that, for the first time, would apply to non-government and non-Canadian research collaborators. Some American scientists have already said they won’t sign such confidentiality agreements, especially when their own government is actively promoting greater openness with government-funded research.
The Harper administration isn’t the first government to try to massage the message. But in my experience, it’s never been this bad. Some journalists have given up even trying to get a comment from a federal scientist in Canada—it’s easier to call someone in the U.S. or the U.K.
And it need not be like this. Climate scientist Gordon McBean, who was an assistant deputy minister at Environment Canada in the ’90s, says that instead of silencing scientists, he sent them away for media training—so that they would talk more to the media. That’s what CJFE would like to see. More than a year ago we wrote a public letter to Prime Minister Harper saying: “We want freedom of speech for federal scientists because we believe it makes for better journalism, for a more informed public, for a healthier democracy, and it makes it more likely that Canadians will reap the maximum benefit from the research they fund.” ⌘
Bob Carty is a CJFE Board Member. An earlier version of this article appeared in Canadian Chemical News.
APRIL In a scene reminiscent of the Cold War, government “minders” shadow scientists at an international polar conference to ensure they do not say something inappropriate to the media. The so-called “media relations contacts” monitored and recorded all interactions between Canadian scientists and the press. No government scientists were willing to discuss the novel chaperone service; off record, one called it an embarrassment to Canada.
JULY More than 2,000 scientists stage the “Death of Evidence” demonstration on Parliament Hill, garnering headlines across Canada and around the world. Jeff Hutchings, a professor of biology at Dalhousie University, addressed the protestors: “When you inhibit the communication of science, you inhibit science. When you inhibit science, you inhibit the acquisition of knowledge ... An iron curtain is being drawn by government between science and society. Closed curtains, especially those made of iron, make for very dark rooms.” Protest organizers continue to monitor censorship and galvanize public opinion at scienceuncensored.ca.
NOVEMBER A document released under Access to Information to Postmedia’s Mike De Souza reveals that Environment Canada scientists had confirmed results published earlier by water expert David Schindler to the effect that contaminants were accumulating in snow near oil sands operations. The document reveals that government researchers were discouraged from speaking to reporters about their findings, and a scripted list of answers was developed to contradict the findings.
DECEMBER Contrary to government claims that there was no muzzling of scientists, documents released under Access to Information show that ozone scientist David Tarasick was prevented from talking to the media by order of Environment Minister Peter Kent and the Privy Council Office.
JANUARY The Royal Society of Canada joins the debate, with its president, Yolande Grisé, telling Ottawa: “The federal government should immediately unshackle government scientists and let them do their jobs. The integrity of evidence-based public policy development is at stake. The public should be allowed to learn directly from our scientists when they make discoveries in areas of public concern.”
The Montreal Gazette, in an editorial, expresses dismay “that the present Conservative government in Ottawa is so insecure that it is afraid to let scientists in its employ speak freely about their findings.”
FEBRUARY Democracy Watch and the Environmental Law Centre of the University of Victoria ask Canada’s information commissioner, as part of her mandate to investigate complaints about access to information, to look into the government’s “systematic efforts” to obstruct researchers. An accompanying 128-page study, Muzzling Civil Servants: A Threat to Democracy?, charges that: Natural Resources Canada has “particularly strict rules restricting the ability of scientists to talk to the media about ‘climate change’ and ‘oil sands’”; Environment Canada “specifically forbids scientists from speaking to the public on identified issues such as climate change or protection of polar bear and caribou until the Privy Council Office gives approval”; and Fisheries and Oceans Canada staff “comprehensively control interviews.”
In the U.S., the Obama administration instructs government scientists to release federally funded scientific papers more quickly, and for free, to the public.
MARCH Two years after she was forbidden to talk to the media about her peer-reviewed and already published research into diseases that are killing West Coast salmon, DFO researcher Kristi Miller is allowed to talk to the press for the first time—about her future salmon research.
MARCH Information Commissioner Suzanne Legault responds favourably to the request from Democracy Watch and the Environmental Law Centre, announcing the launch of an investigation into seven federal government departments over the muzzling of scientists.
MARCH Federal funding stops for the Experimental Lakes Area. The $2-million annual cost of the unique, world-renowned research facility is equivalent to seven per cent of the bill for the Conservative government’s spending to commemorate a 200-year-old war.
Also on HuffPost:
Cuts To Science In Canada
A selection of programs and research facilities being closed, downsized or in jeopardy due to federal funding cuts or policy changes made by the Conservative government.
Advanced Laser Light Source Project (Varennes, Quebec)
May be forced to close in 2014 if new funding isn't secured due to moratorium on the Major Resources Support Program (MRS) at Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Several of the following MRS cuts are detailed in a <a href="http://kennedystewart.ndp.ca/sites/default/files/kennedystewart.ndp.ca/field_attached_files/mrs_program_moratorium_impact_report_0.pdf" target="_blank">report by the office of NDP MP Kennedy Stewart</a>, opposition critic for science and technology.
Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre (Bamfield, B.C.)
Losing a third of his research budget, worth about $500,000 a year. The money runs out April 1, 2014 due to MRS moratorium at NSERC.
Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen Research Cuts
Canada’s only icebreaker dedicated to research has received $2.8 million in total MRS funding. Moratorium on MRS will result in far less research and higher costs to charter; loss of four technicians out of six.
Experimental Lakes Area (Kenora District, Ontario)
The government announced the closure of the Experimental Lakes Area run by Fisheries and Oceans Canada in northwestern Ontario. The cuts will save it about $2 million a year — although <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/03/19/experimental-lakes-area-tories-scientists_n_2910022.html" target="_blank">sources told The Canadian Press</a> the actual operating cost of the facility is about $600,000 annually, of which a third comes back in user fees. (The Ontario government, working with Ottawa, Manitoba and others,<a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/04/24/ontario-ela-open-for-year_n_3146662.html" target="_blank"> announced April 24 that it would help keep ELA open</a>). The facility, an outdoor laboratory consisting of 58 lakes, laboratories and living quarters, has been in operation since 1968 and is credited with helping solve North America’s acid rain problem in the 1970s and 1980s among other breakthroughs in areas of toxic contaminants, algae and flooding by reservoirs.
Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, Ont.
$1.27-million shortfall due MRS moratorium. Training for users and students will be scaled back significantly.
IsoTrace AMS facility (University of Ottawa, Ontario)
High precision measurement of radiocarbon and other trace radionuclides for geological dating and tracing in the earth and environmental sciences. Operation in jeopardy. The facility recently received $16 million in funding from the Ontario government and Canadian Foundation for Innovation to set up new geoscience labs at the University of Ottawa. It was counting on $125,000 per year from MRS to maintain operations. That funding was to increase with new facilities. "It is shameful that our main funding organization for the sciences has decided that it should withdraw from supporting solid empirical research through funding laboratories," a spokesperson said.
Kluane Lake Research Centre, Yukon
The Kluane Lake facility, one of Canada's oldest research facilities, lost $106,000 due to MRS cuts. The facility is run by the Arctic Institute of North America, a joint U.S.-Canada research operation that is administered by the University of Calgary along with the University of Alaska, <a href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2012/07/10/f-kluane-glacier-research.html" target="_blank">CBC reports</a>.
Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences, Ottawa
Launched by the Liberal government under Jean Chrétien in 2000, the foundation awarded more than $100 million in grants for university-led research. In 2011, the federal government’s first omnibus budget bill killed the foundation. At the time, the government said it would replace some of the funds with $35 million to be distributed through the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) over five years for all climate research activities.
Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (Nunavut)
Located on Ellesmere Island near Eureka, Nunavut, it is one of the most remote weather stations in the world and does key research on climate change, ozone and air quality. Closed after it lost $1.5 million in annual funding due to the closure of the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences.
The Canadian Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis (University of Alberta, Edmonton)
MRS moratorium means the centre no longer has an open door policy for Canadian researchers or a special reduced NSERC rate for research conducted by Canadians in the labs. "The long-term prognosis for the geochronology labs is not good," a spokesperson said.
The National High Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Centre (Edmonton, Alberta)
Program in jeopardy due to MRS moratorium, <a href="http://kennedystewart.ndp.ca/sites/default/files/kennedystewart.ndp.ca/field_attached_files/mrs_program_moratorium_impact_report_0.pdf" target="_blank">according to the NDP</a>.
The National Ultrahigh-Field NMR Facility for Solids (University of Ottawa)
The facility will close without MRS funding, leaving $10 million in capital equipment idle, including the only Canadian-based 900 MHz Bruker Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer,<a href="http://kennedystewart.ndp.ca/sites/default/files/kennedystewart ndp.ca/field_attached_files/mrs_program_moratorium_impact_report 0.pdf" target="_blank"> according to the NDP</a>.
Office of the National Science Adviser
The office, created in 2004 by the Liberal government of Paul Martin and led by Arthur Carty, pictured, was intended to provide independent expert advice to the prime minister on matters of national policy related to science, ranging from nanotechnology, high energy particle physics and ocean technologies to climate change and the environment. The Harper government closed the office in 2008.
National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy
Funding for the arm's length, independent advisory group was cut in the 2011 budget and the group wound down in 2012. Since 1988, it had been producing research on how business and government policies can work together for sustainable development — including the idea of introducing carbon taxes. The <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/05/14/national-round table-on-the-environment-and-the-economy-funding_n_1516240.html" target="_blank">Tories confirmed they cut funding because of the group's focus on carbon taxes</a>.