A few of years ago a man by the name of Joël Debellefeuille was out for a drive with his wife and stepdaughter. For the purposes of this story it is important that we note that this man is black and that the car he was driving was a BMW sport-utility vehicle.
Blacks in Canada and the U.S.A. have devised an acronym for the supposed crime, which prompts police harassment of black drivers, often triggered by incredulity at the idea that any of us could possibly own a nice car legitimately (meaning without the ill-gotten gains of criminal activity). We call it D.W.B. or "Driving While Black." Joel was pulled over by two Longueil (Quebec) police constables, because after running his plates, they reasoned that his name could not possibly match his skin colour. According to one of the officers,
If I run the plate and it comes back "Mr. Jack" and it's a woman driving, you know for sure she's not the owner. That means I'll stop her... If I have an "Ebrahim" and it's a white man, a Quebecer who's driving, yes. Or if it's an Arab who's driving and it comes back "Dubuc," ya I'm going to stop him and check.
Debellefeuille refused to provide his ID and he was given two tickets. The case bounced around for two years, landing in the lap of the municipal court judge Pierre Tremblay who blasted the officers for racially profiling Mr. Debellefeuille. What is interesting to me in this horrible and potential hazardous case is how white people have conveniently forgotten the processes of colonization that their ancestors inflicted on people of colour, which included for enslaved Africans, the stripping of our African names and their replacement with the names of white European slave owners.
With the recent event at Barney's, New York, it would appear that blacks should add S.W.B. or "Shopping While Black" to the list of supposed crimes for which we are racially profiled. In April 2013 after Trayon Christian, a 19-year-old college student from Queens had purchased a $350 Salvatore Ferragamo belt at the upscale department store, Christian alleges that he was stopped by undercover officers, questioned, hand-cuffed and taken to a local precinct.
The Barney's clerk had tipped off the officers. But why would the clerk be suspicious of Christian and his purchase? The purchase had been approved on his debit card. Let's see what was it about Christian that could have possibly made him suspicious in the clerk's eyes? Hmmm...perhaps his blackness? Although some would argue that the catalyst was the intersection of his age, sex, and race (the fact that he is a young, black man) then how would one explain the alleged similar treatment of Kayla Phillips?
Phillips is a 21-year-old black female nursing student from Brooklyn who alleges that plainclothes officers, suspecting her of making a fraudulent purchase in February 2013 of a $2,504 designer purse, also stopped her. In a scenario that sounds both frightening and humiliating, four plainclothes officers allegedly stopped Phillips three blocks from the store. As in the case with Christian, they demanded that she verify her purchase and produce evidence of the method of payment.
Although both cases occurred at Barney's, New York, let's not be foolish enough to think that this is not happening all the time in various stores, boutiques, malls and plazas all over the United States, Canada and elsewhere. What is interesting here is that we have an escalation of sorts. Whereas black people are sadly, quite accustomed to being followed while shopping, in the cases of Christian and Phillips we have two people who not only successfully completed the purchase transactions, but also had the ID, receipts and methods of payment to prove it. That is why they were not stopped at the cash registers!
It is not inconsequential that both Christian and Phillips were making what would be called "high end" purchases. But unless Barney's has never had a black person cross the threshold of their store before, they must be aware that there are many blacks, especially in a city like New York, who can afford to buy their products.
While blacks are targets for S.W.B in both "low" and "high" end establishments, it often takes the form of racial profiling and stalking in-store prior to the purchase, not after. As Oprah's recent run-in with a boutique clerk in Switzerland attests, this racial profiling often takes the form of inferior or outright hostile service. In Oprah's case, while out shopping in her Donna Karan shirt and sandals, the white store clerk refused to let her see a $38,000 crocodile skin bag by Tom Ford, informing the billionaire media mogul that it was, "too expensive."
That Oprah bothered to note what she was wearing points out the self-policing that gets socialized into blacks; the ways in which we come to over-regulate our appearance and behaviour as a means to ensure that we are not subjected to such humiliating treatment.
But the sad fact is that it does not matter what we are wearing. In all of these cases, it was arguably not the "presentability" of Christian, Phillips and Winfrey that resulted in them receiving poor service or being accosted after a purchase, it was their blackness. How Debellefeuille presented himself was also not the deciding factor in his subjection to racial profiling. Rather, the unifying factor is that these black people, who would all appear to be of middle or upper class backgrounds, dared to desire nice things, "high end" expensive purchases -- cars, belts and bags -- for themselves.
Debellefeuille refused to pay the tickets and persevered for two years in several courts in order to finally win his case. Christian is suing Barney's and the NYPD, and Phillips the latter. Meanwhile, Oprah used her media access at the moment of the launch of her most recent film success The Butler to speak out. Since blacks are often the victims of racial violence, a discussion about racial harassment while driving or shopping may seem trivial. However, given the frequency of unwarranted police surveillance against blacks, any type of racial profiling contains the seeds of potentially lethal violence. Acts like shopping and driving are not just mundane they are a constant part of our daily realities. As such, the potential for racist abuse is far too pervasive and needs to be immediately addressed.
An officer in Baltimore City was charged with animal cruelty after allegedly slitting the throat of Nala (pictured with owner), a pet who had escaped from her home. Nala had nipped at a woman's hand earlier in the day, but even that woman was horrified by officers' treatment of the dog. She noted that Nala was not aggressive, but had bitten her only "out of fear." <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/19/jeffrey-bolger-cop-slits-dogs-trhoat_n_5512981.html" target="_blank">Click here to read the whole story.</a>
In April 2012, an officer in Sulphur, Louisiana approached two men on trespassing charges and, while apprehending them, tied one of the men's dog to a nearby fence. A third party witness at the scene said that the dog was rubbing up against the officer, who was petting him, but then "all of a sudden, he just jumped down and shot the dog in the head." The officer later claimed the dog had bitten him, but both the witness and the dog's owner say that's not true. <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/29/cop-smiles-after-shooting-dog_n_5235504.html" target="_blank">Click here to read the whole story.</a>
FILE - This July 5, 2011 file still frame from security camera video, released May 7, 2012, by the Orange County District Attorney, shows an altercation between Fullerton police officers and Kelly Thomas at the Fullerton, Calif., bus depot. Thomas died days later. Two officers, Manuel Ramos, and Jay Ciccinelli, are on trial charges related to his death. Closing arguments are scheduled to begin Tuesday, Jan. 7, 2013. (AP Photo/Orange County District Attorney, File)
Oscar Grant was shot by a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) police officer early on New Year's Day 2009 in Oakland, Calif. Cellphone footage shows BART cops struggling with Grant and forcing him to lay facedown on the platform after reports of a fight on the train. Officer Johannes Mehserle was seen shooting Grant in the back once, killing him. He was later convicted of involuntary manslaughter, but acquitted of second degree murder.
In one of the most notorious cases of police brutality, a bystander recorded four Los Angeles Police Department officers beating Rodney King with their batons in 1991 after they pulled him over for driving erratically. When the videotape emerged days later of the attack, the four cops were charged with assault. A jury acquitted them, sparking riots in April 1992 that killed 55 people and led to 12,000 arrests over seven days.
Off-duty Chicago police officer Anthony Abbate was<a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/06/23/ex-cop-anthony-abbate-get_n_219651.html" target="_hplink"> sentenced to two years probation</a> and anger management classes after being captured on video beating a female bartender in 2007.
Chicago police officer William Cozzi was sentenced to 40 months in federal prison after he was caught on camera in 2005 handcuffing a man to a wheelchair and beating him in a hospital. Cozzi claimed the victim -- a man who was seeking treatment for stab wounds -- had attacked him.
A New York City police officer was <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/15/patrick-pogan-biker-shove_n_646517.html " target="_hplink">acquitted of assault and harassment</a> after being videotaped <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/07/28/critical-mass-bicyclist-a_n_115390.html " target="_hplink">knocking over cyclist Christopher Long</a> during a "Critical Mass" bike ride through Times Square in 2008. Patrick Pogan resigned from the police force and was found guilty of filing false documents after video emerged that contradicted his claim that Long swerved into him.
Ahmed Amadou Diallo, 22, seen here in an undated photo, was gunned down at his home in the Bronx borough of New York early Thursday morning, Feb. 4, 1999. Four white police officers from the elite Street Crime Unit fired 41 shots at Diallo, a black West African immigrant who had no police record and was unarmed. Diallo was hit 19 times and died instantly. The officers' lawyer says Diallo gestured with his hands, leading the police to think he was reaching for a gun.
Abner Loiuma became a symbol of unchecked police force after the Haitian immigrant was sodomized with a broomstick by cops in a New York City police station in 1997. The officer responsible for the attack, Justin Volpe, was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
London newspaper vendor Ian Tomlinson died after police officer Simon Harwood hit him with a baton and <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/09/british-police-officer-su_n_185251.html " target="_hplink">knocked him to the ground</a> as he walked away from police during a G-20 protest in 2009. Harwood will stand trial in October for manslaughter, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jun/20/ian-tomlinson-death-officer-trial" target="_hplink">according to The Guardian</a>.
Michael Mineo accused an NYPD cop of sodomizing him with a baton after getting busted for smoking marijuana at a Brooklyn subway station in October 2008. A jury cleared the officer accused in the attack as well as two others charged with covering up the alleged assault.
In this May 24, 2010 file photo, former Chicago Police commander Jon Burge departs the federal building in Chicago. Burge, whose name has become synonymous with police brutality and abuse of power in Chicago, was convicted in 2010 of perjury and obstruction of justice for lying in a civil suit when he said he'd never witnessed or participated in the torture of suspects.
The trial is underway for four New Orleans police officers accused of killing two people and wounding four others in the shooting on the Danziger Bridge in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The suspects, pictured left to right, are Robert Faulcon Jr., Robert Gisevius Jr., Kenneth Bowen, and Anthony Villavaso II.
Security cameras in a Manhattan apartment building recorded NYPD officer David London hitting Iraq war veteran Walter Harvin almost 20 times with a baton even after he had handcuffed him. The incident began when Harvin entered the building without a key and refused to identify himself to London. Footage shows Harvin shoved London, but the cop lied to investigators by claiming that he'd been punched before retaliating with his baton. A jury acquitted London of assault and making false statements in 2010.
Eleanor Bumpurs, a 66-year-old African American woman, was killed by NYPD officers who were trying to evict her from her Bronx public housing apartment in 1984 for falling behind on her rent. City housing authority workers called in the cops, because they claimed that Bumpurs -- shown in an undated photo -- was mentally ill and that she menaced them with a knife while refusing to vacate her home. The officer who shot Bumpers twice with a shotgun was acquitted in 1987.
The 2006 shooting of 23-year-old Sean Bell raised questions in New York City about the NYPD's use of excessive force. On what would have been his wedding day, Bell was shot and killed by police in a hail of 50 bullets outside a strip club in Queens. Officers said they thought the victim and his friends, who were celebrating Bell's bachelor party, were planning on retrieving a gun from their vehicle when they opened fire. After months of protests around the city, Officers Michael Oliver, Gescard Isnora and Marc Cooper were acquitted in 2008.