Ever since launching our project to put climate change warning labels on gas pumps, people have frequently told me, "My friend still smokes, so warning labels don't work." They draw a very general conclusion from a very particular example. First, if you want to learn about the effectiveness of tobacco warning labels, you need to look at the studies. Second, if want to learn about the potential impact of our warning labels, you need to look at human psychology and the nature of climate change.
In 2000, Canada became the first country in the world to develop picture-based warning labels for tobacco packages. The innovation spread to over 50 countries. The most comprehensive study on the effectiveness of these warning labels is a meta-study commissioned by the European Union in 2009. It evaluated evidence from over two hundred studies from all over the world and concluded that warning labels work:
There is clear evidence that tobacco package health warnings increase consumers' knowledge about the health consequences of tobacco use and contribute to changing consumer's attitudes towards tobacco use as well as changing consumers' behaviour. They are also a critical element of an effective tobacco control policy.
If you're still not convinced by the evidence, ask yourself: Would tobacco companies spend millions of dollars on lawyers to fight labelling laws all over the world if they didn't work? Of course not. Indeed, there is an entire industry that employs psychologists and runs focus groups to tinker with the images, colours, fonts, shapes and textures of packaging -- all with the explicit purpose of influencing consumer choices. It's simply untenable to suggest that the way a product is presented has no effect on consumer attitudes or behaviours.
But let's put aside the tobacco analogy for a moment to explore how warning labels on fossil fuels address human psychology and climate change.
Adam Kingsmith recently examined some of the root causes behind our environmental apathy at DeSmog Canada. He notes a growing body of psychological research that shows we fail to take action on climate change because of something called hyperbolic discounting:
Also known as current moment bias, hyperbolic discounting is a cognitive bias in which people, given two similar rewards, will show a preference for one arriving sooner rather than later. Translation -- we have a really hard time imagining ourselves in the future and altering our behaviours and expectations accordingly. As such, most people usually opt for gratification now, while leaving discomfort for later -- a serious psychological deficiency when considering the environmental consequences of such a short-term way of thinking.
I like to use the analogy of accidentally putting my hand on a hot stove. When that happens, I get an instant pain signal that prompts me to remove my hand. It's an adaptive quality that causes me to adjust my behaviour to a change in my environment. With climate change, there is a delay between cause and effect. We get no immediate signal to alter our behaviour so we fall victim to our cognitive biases. Our resulting decisions are maladaptive.
Our warning labels compress time to mitigate the effects of the current moment bias. They bring future consequences -- like drought, the extinction of species, and ocean acidification -- into the here and now. In doing so, they build feedback to help us transition from a maladaptive economy to an adaptive one.
Climate change can also be understood as a problem of diffusion of responsibility. As individuals, our contribution to the problem is small. Collectively, our actions dangerously alter the chemistry of our planet. Social psychologists know that when responsibility for something is shared among many, we often fail to act. The antidote appears to be fairly intuitive. Dr. Alex Lickerman explains in Psychology Today:
Knowing the principle of diffusion of responsibility holds sway in the hearts of many may explain the often frustrating inaction with which we find ourselves faced on an almost daily basis, but it also points the way to changing it. The key is getting others to feel personally responsible for helping to solve problems they may not consider their own.
So where responsibility for a problem is diffuse, one must simply locate responsibility. The placement of our warning label on a gas pump nozzle takes a problem of diffuse origins and locates responsibility right in the palm of your hand. Our idea isn't another climate change documentary or vague awareness campaign; the concept is revolutionary. There is nothing out there that connects us to these problems in such a direct way.
But let's go back to the warning labels already on cigarette packages for one last bit of psychology: cognitive priming. Remember, there are over 50 countries that already have picture-based warning labels on tobacco packaging. When I first came out with this project, my theory was that citizens all over the world would be cognitively primed to understand and advocate for our idea. Early indications via social media appear to validate this theory.
And there's more: our gas nozzle labels share a similar size, shape, and look as the labels already on tobacco packages. Priming theory suggests that citizens may develop the same negative associations with fossil fuels as they already have with cigarettes.
What sort of impact will this all have? I think these labels have the power to transform markets.
That's why I've hired someone to help build the global version of our campaign. Right now we have a database with the email address of all 25,000 representatives at the municipal level in Canada. Through our website, we're empowering citizens all across the country to easily advocate for our idea. When Canadian communities begin to set precedents by passing our idea into law, I want to be ready with the email address of every single elected representative on the planet. We're going to empower citizens all over the world to advocate for our idea.
We have already completed collecting email addresses for representatives in several countries, but we still have a lot of work to do. To volunteer some time to help us crowd-source the development of this database, please contact Christine at firstname.lastname@example.org. To donate to our project, please visit www.indiegogo.com/projects/face-the-change.
Researchers in Britain have found that <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22076055" target="_blank">climate change could cause increased turbulence</a> for transatlantic flights by between 10 and 40 percent by 2050. (ALEXANDER KLEIN/AFP/GettyImages)
A 2012 study from the U.S. Forest Service found that without "major adaptation efforts," parts of the U.S. are likely to see "<a href="http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/42363" target="_blank">substantial future water shortages</a>." Climate change, especially for the Southwest U.S., can both <a href="http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2013/02/25/1638541/study-climate-change-dry-up-us-reservoirs-lake-powell-lake-mead" target="_blank">increase water demand and decrease water supply</a>.
Research by British government found that <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/15/somalia-famine-climate-change_n_2883088.html" target="_blank">climate change may have contributed to a famine in East Africa</a> that killed between 50,000 and 100,000 people in 2010 and 2011. At least 24 percent of the cause of a lack of major rains in 2011 can be attributed to man-made greenhouse gases, Met Office modeling showed. (TONY KARUMBA/AFP/Getty Images)
The <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/mar/25/frozen-spring-arctic-sea-ice-loss" target="_blank">dramatic and rapid loss of sea ice in recent years</a> has consequences beyond the Arctic. Scientists have found the melting shifts the position of the Jet Stream, bringing cold Arctic air further south and increasing the odds of intense snow storms and extreme spring weather.
Research indicates that increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide <a href="http://www.onearth.org/blog/poison-ivy-climate-change" target="_blank">result in larger poison ivy plants</a>. Even worse, climate change will mean that the plant's irritating oil will also get more potent.
The <a href="http://www.livescience.com/28320-climate-change-allergies.html" target="_blank">spring 2013 allergy season could be one of the worst ever</a>, thanks to climate change. Experts say that increased precipitation, along with an early spring, late-ending fall and higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide may bring more pollen from plants and increased mold and fungal growth.
North American alligators require a certain temperature range for survival and reproduction, traditionally limiting them to the southern U.S. <a href="http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/animal_forecast/2013/02/alligators_in_virginia_climate_change_could_be_pushing_cold_blooded_species.single.html" target="_blank">But warming temperatures could open new turf</a> to gators with more sightings farther north.
High in the Peruvian Andes, parts of the world's largest tropical ice sheet have melted at an unbelievable pace. Scientists found that significant <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/world/americas/1600-years-of-ice-in-perus-andes-melted-in-25-years-scientists-say.html" target="_blank">portions of the Quelccaya Ice Cap that took over 1,600 years to form have melted in only 25 years</a>. (Perito Moreno Glacier pictured)
Along with other agricultural impacts, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/climate-change-wine_n_3039673.html" target="_blank">climate change may have a dramatic effect on the world's most famous winemaking regions</a> in coming decades. Areas suitable for grape cultivation may shrink, and temperature changes may impact the signature taste of wines from certain regions.
Thanks to climate change, <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/blog/polar-arctic-greenland-ice-climate-change" target="_blank">low-lying island nations may have to evacuate</a>, and sooner than previously expected. Melting of the Greenland and west Antarctic ice sheets has been underestimated, scientists say, and populations in countries like the Maldives, Kiribati, Tuvalu and others may need to move within a decade.
Warmer winters in northern latitudes could mean <a href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2013/01/18/hamilton-climate-change-rinks.html" target="_blank">fewer days for outdoor hockey</a>. An online project called RinkWatch aims to collect data on the condition of outdoor winter ice rinks in Canada and the northern U.S. and educate people on the impacts of climate change.
Experts speculate that <a href="http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100806-oyster-herpes-global-warming-climate-change-science/" target="_blank">warming oceans may have played a part in a strain of herpes</a> that has killed Pacific oysters in Europe in recent years.
As Arctic ice melts and polar bears see more of their habitat disappear, the <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/03/14/polar-bears-turn-brown-climate-change_n_2878684.html" target="_blank">animals could lose their famous white coats</a>. Researchers have already witnessed polar bears hybridizing with their brown cousins, but note that it would take thousands of years from them to adapt themselves out of existence.
Climate change means warmer winters in northern latitudes and a shorter ski season. By 2039, <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/13/us/climate-change-threatens-ski-industrys-livelihood.html" target="_blank">more than half of the Northeast's ski resorts</a> will not be able to maintain a 100-day season, according to the New York Times. Ski areas will be less likely to receive regular snowfall, and warmer daily low temperatures mean fewer opportunities for snowmaking.
Apples produced in one Himalayan state of India are already losing their taste and even turning sour, experts say. <a href="http://zeenews.india.com/news/eco-news/arunachal-apples-losing-taste-due-to-climate-chang_831169.html" target="_blank">Increased rainfall and erratic weather in the region mean less than ideal conditions</a> for famously-sweet Kashmiri apples.
With climate change already impacting northern latitudes, <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/06/sports/warm-weather-forces-changes-ahead-of-iditarod-race.html" target="_blank">warmer winters in Alaska could mean less than ideal conditions</a> for the famous Iditarod sled dog race. “It definitely has us concerned,” a musher and Iditarod spokeswoman who's already breeding dogs with thinner coats told The New York Times.
<a href="http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/11/121108-climate-change-coffee-coffea-arabica-botanical-garden-science/" target="_blank">Climate change may dramatically shrink the area suitable for coffee cultivation</a> by the end of the century and cause the extinction of Arabica coffee plants in the wild. Starbucks has already declared that "<a href="http://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/environment/climate-change" target="_blank">Addressing climate change is a priority</a>."
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